Colosseum, also known as Flavian Amphitheater (in Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, in Italian: Flavian Amphitheater), is an oval amphitheater located in the center of the city of Rome, capital of Italy. Built with concrete and sand, it is the largest amphitheater ever built and is situated just east of the Roman Forum.
The construction began under the rule of the emperor Vespasiano in 72 AD and was completed in 80 under the regime of his successor and heir Tito. Other modifications were made during the reign of Domitian (81-96). These three emperors are known as the Flavian dynasty and the amphitheater was named in Latin this way by its association with the family name (Flavius).
The Coliseum could house, it is estimated, between 50 thousand and 80 thousand spectators, with an average audience of about 65 thousand people. The building was used for gladiatorial battles and public spectacles such as simulations of sea battles (in a short period of time as the hypogeum was flooded through support mechanisms), wild animal fights, executions, famous battlestations and dramas based on classical mythology. The building was no longer used for entertainment in the medieval era. It was later reused for various purposes such as housing, workshops, a religious order headquarters, a fortress, a quarry and a Christian shrine. In 2007, the monument was informally elected as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.
Although partially ruined because of earthquake damage and looting, the Colosseum is still a symbol of Imperial Rome. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions of the Italian capital and also has connections with the Roman Catholic Church, because every Good Friday, the Pope guides Via Crúcis that begins in the area around the Coliseum. The Colosseum is also depicted in the Italian version of the five cent euro coin.